At iDE, we generally see three critical components to effect solutions in this regard:
1) Mainstreaming a customer-oriented approach: For iDE, Human-Centered Design is mainstreamed into all our WASH programming. Utilizing an approach that intrinsically focuses on the behavioral triggers and barriers of consumers/customers, but also of supply chain actors, enables us to find the “right” or at least “better” solution early into the piloting/demonstration phase – a solution more likely to be grounded in the incentive structures of the supply- and demand-side actors (& enabling environment players) with the greatest ability to a) diffuse the solution at increasing scales, b) access the solution with minimal devt. sector support/involvement over the long-run.
2) Partnerships with right global partners for external expertise and support: Whether working with IDEO on the HCD Toolkit, American Standard on the SaTo Pan, or RFL Plastics on a forthcoming mass-producible toilet, we know that leveraging skillsets from commercial players who know the technologies and/or production/distribution processes better than us are critical to success.
3) Partnerships in-country with the private sector that are grounded in the right contextualization to take to market in each specific country in which we are working: Market development is best delivered with a "spectrum of approaches" mentality. In Cambodia, we've facilitated the sale of 100,000 latrines in 2 years through a social enterprise-oriented model due to the relative immaturity of the local private sector in sanitation. In Ethiopia and Vietnam, the government is the key player to incentivize before introducing the private sector to the space. And in Bangladesh, we utilize a highly-M4P, "hands off" approach b/c of the relative market maturity.