When it comes to question 3, there are indeed some advantages of ranking companies on their contribution to peace. Ethics have been more and more essential to a company's social image. Apart from profitability, innovation, or business strategies, how much ethical is the firm is another measure for assessing a company. A firm contributing more to peace will bring more reputation to its brand images, which can definitely boost its performance. However, I deem there is no need for certifying companies against some standard because ,as we discussed in class, if the company does not violate the law, we should not force it to contribute to peace. For some newly-started companies, they need more retained earnings for growth and temporarily have no excess resources to contribute to peace. If we force them to be contributive, first it would be inadequate humanitarian, second it will strangle some new little companies. As for whether making public, I think they should because it can make them more under monitor of public, which incentive them not to be unethical.